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Prelim Glasgow draft emphasises 1.5°C cap

 Updated on Nov 08, 2021 01:25 AM IST

By Jayashree Nandi, Hindustan Times, New Delhi

Several governments, including India, have made key announcements over climate financing, net-zero commitments, pledges to end deforestation by 2030, and a US- and EU-led pledge to slash methane emissions by 30% by 2030, in the first week of the conference.

 

Ahead of the second week of the COP26 summit, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on Sunday released the preliminary draft text of the cover decision, or what may be called the Glasgow Pact, emphasising on the need for urgent efforts to achieve the 1.5 degrees Celsius target.

 

The presidency summary of possible elements also talks about keeping the temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius, the importance of responding to the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on pre-2030 action, transitioning to global net zero by 2050 and the carbon budget.

 

Several governments, including India, have made key announcements over climate financing, net-zero commitments, pledges to end deforestation by 2030, and a US- and EU-led pledge to slash methane emissions by 30% by 2030, in the first week of the conference. Over 40 countries also pledged to phase out coal in a separate event at COP26. India, China, Australia and US did not sign that pledge.

 

Calling for international collaboration, the document also highlights the need to “scale up finance flows to developing countries” and expresses “deep concern that the $100bn goal has not yet been met”.

 

At COP15 in 2009, developed countries committed to mobilising jointly $100 billion a year by 2020.

 

“NEW “Non paper” on “possible elements” of crucial #COP26 “cover decision” ...It’s a grab-bag of everything that could be included, not yet drafted in legalese, from “keeping 1.5C alive” to human rights to loss & damage finance,” tweeted Simon Evans, policy editor of Carbon Brief, a website that focuses on climate change politics and policies.

 

While experts said that the elements from the draft text will be negotiated on later in the week, the text does not have any details on the market mechanism or carbon trading element.

 

HT on Sunday reported that the delivery and review of the $100 billion climate finance that was agreed on in 2009; whether that amount is increased after 2025 period; and the 1.5degrees Celsius target, were the three major sticking points that could make or break global efforts to mitigate the climate crisis.

 

India, the third largest carbon emitter, has committed to a net-zero goal by 2070 in its five-point action plan, that also included reducing emissions to 50% by 2030.

 

On Sunday, JR Bhatt, representing India, said that its solar energy capacity has increased 17 times in the last seven years, and now stands at 45 gigawatts. Bhatt is an adviser in the ministry of environment.

 

During a presentation on India’s third Biennial Update Report (BUR) during the 11th Facilitative Sharing of Views (FSV) at the summit, Bhatt highlighted that India represents 17 per cent of the global population but its historical cumulative emissions are only 4 per cent, while current annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are only about 5 per cent.

 

The BUR was submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in February.

 

The key highlight of the discussion on India’s third BUR was the achievement of 24 per cent reduction in emission intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over the period of 2005-2014, and the significant increase of its solar programme.

 

“This is complemented by the fact that India is particularly vulnerable to climate change. However, India is nevertheless taking several mitigation actions, spanning across the entire economy and society and has progressively continued decoupling of its economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions,” said Bhatt.

 

In the last seven years, India’s installed solar energy capacity has increased 17 times, he said, adding that the solar energy capacity now stands at about 45 gigawatts.

 

On the question of an increase in forest cover, India responded that people’s participation has played an important role in enhancing its forest cover, and that its forests provide all the four ecosystem services.

 

India highlighted that it speaks on climate change from a position of strength and responsibility.

 

“India’s 15 per cent of total carbon dioxide emission in 2016 was removed from the atmosphere by the LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry). Between 2015 and 2019, the forest and tree cover increased by 13,031 square kilometer and mangrove cover increased by 235 square kilometer. Populations of Asiatic lions, elephants, rhinos increased manifold in the last 5 to 6 years,” India’s statement at the UN said.

 

“We emphasise that India is particularly vulnerable to climate change, a point which many friends overlook in their eagerness to understand our mitigation efforts. To follow a sustainable path to development, India has taken several mitigation actions. There is no sector that has been left untouched while planning and implementing climate mitigation actions. They span across the entire economy and society,” the statement added.

(With agency inputs)

 

(Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/prelim-glasgow-draft-emphasises-1-5-c-cap-101636309369345.html